ECONOMIC CHALLENGES IN EARLY MODERN AGES AND DIFFERENT RESPONSES OF EUROPEAN MARGINS. COMPARATIVE CONSIDERATIONS BASED ON HISTORIOGRAPHY: THE CASES OF POLISH-LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH AND MOLDAVIAN PRINCIPALITY
Vilnius University, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper has been presented at the Third International Conference on Nordic and Baltic Studies in Romania:
European Networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic World in a Time of Crisis hosted by the Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies and Valahia University of Tārgoviste, and sponsored by the Romanian National Research Council, May 25-27, 2012.
This paper desires to draw attention to some stereotypes that simplify perception of historical reality, but nevertheless still prevail in historiography. There is a very common statement about the so-called second edition of serfdom (based on manorial-serve economy) that spread all around the Eastern Europe region in the 16th century. This turn in social
development is usually explained as determined by internal as well as external factors. If the problem considered is placed under Marxist views, one can distinguish two extreme poles: traditional Marxism and world-system approach. Supporters of traditional Marxism emphasize internal factors while adherents of world-system attitude accentuate external factors. The author argues that the regime of serfdom established in Moldova until 1600 is not consistent with the classic model. In this case, one can talk only about another type of second serfdom that differs from that of Eastern Germany as well as from Central Europe. It would be also a gross simplification to claim that second serfdom phenomenon was caused exclusively by external reasons. Internal causes are not less but probably even more decisive, at least in some cases. As the work of Darius iemelis has showed recently, statements of world-system approach toward certain societies are worth of critical reconsideration.
Studiul de fa?a are inten?ia sa atraga aten?ia asupra unor stereotipuri care simplifica percep?ia asupra realita?ii istorice, dar, cu toate acestea, īnca predomina īn istoriografie. Exista o afirma?ie foarte obi?nuita despre aoa-numita a doua iobagie (bazata pe raportul economic boier-?aran dependent), care s-a raspāndit īn īntreaga aoa-numita regiune a Europei de Est īn secolul al XVI-lea. Cauzele acestei transformari a dezvoltarii sociale sunt, de obicei, explicate atāt prin factori interni cāt oi externi. Daca am ancora problema men?ionata īn cadrul explica?iei marxiste, se pot distinge doua extreme: marxismul tradi?ional oi abordarea sistemului mondial. Sus?inatorii marxismului tradi?ional subliniaza factorii interni, īn timp ce adep?ii teoriei sistemului mondial accentueaza factorii externi. Autorul sus?ine ca regimul de iobagie stabilit īn Moldova pāna īn anul 1600 nu corespunde modelului clasic. Īn acest caz se poate vorbi doar despre un alt tip de A Doua Iobagie, care difera de cea din Germania de Est, precum oi de cea din Europa Centrala. Ar fi, de asemenea, o simplificare evidenta, sa pretindem ca fenomenul celea de-a Doua Iobagii a fost cauzat doar de motive externe. Cauzele interne nu sunt mai mici, ci, probabil, chiar mai decisive, cel pu?in, īn unele cazuri. Aoa cum a aratat recent lucrarea lui Darius iemelis, paradigma sistemului mondial fa?a de anumite societa?i merita o reconsiderare critica.
Key words: second serfdom, manorial-serf system (Folwark), corvée (labour rent), international trade, Marxism.
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